Land & Property
The Rwanda land system is defined by the Organic Land Law of 2005. No difference is made between nationals and foreign investors.
All land belongs to public entities: the State, the Cities and the Districts.
- "Public land" is reserved for public use or for environmental protection.
- "Private land" can be allocated by its public owners (State, Cities and District) to natural or legal persons. It then becomes "individual land". It is leased, for up to 99 years, through a lease contract and against payment of an annual lease fee. The lessee can obtain an ownership certificate by paying at once 10 years of lease fee and by constructing a building on the land (or by improving/exploiting it conforming to its intended use).
Land rights can be transmitted (through sale, donation or inheritence).
Indivudual land customarily owned before the 2005 law can be registered under the new law.
Registration of land in Rwanda is mandatory.
The government embarked on the programme of systematic land registration in 2010 in an effort to register all land partitions in the country and issue land titles to the owners. This programme is carried out in accordance with the procedures set out in Annex 3 of ministerial order No 002/2008 of 01/04/2008 (art.25) determining modalities of land registration. The process is ongoing and the government aims to finalize all land registration very soon. Once this process is complete, certificates of provisional land ownership will cease to exist as all the people will have certificates of registration of emphyteutic lease or full ownership titles.